Chap 20 Empire and Wars

1. American “jingoism” was a response to the
perceived inferiority of nonwhite peoples.
demand for Christian missionaries in China.
late nineteenth-century masculinity crisis.
lengthy campaign for women’s suffrage.
1. Despite their differences, Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson both believed that
participation in a war was key to the development of true masculinity.
nations should work collectively to preserve international peace and stability.
the United States had the right to intervene in the affairs of other nations.
it was imperative for the United States to gain access to the China market.
1. During World War I, the song “Over There” and the films produced by the Committee on Public Information both conveyed the message that
there would be no tolerance of sedition during wartime.
German Americans were dangerous and had to be watched.
the U.S. military was essential to the Allies’ victory.
the Central Powers would be defeated easily.
1. During his last eighteen months in office, Woodrow Wilson
worked tirelessly to rally public support for the Versailles treaty.
convinced Congress to support his vision of the League of Nations.
was convinced that Congress should retain the right to declare war.
largely withdrew from active participation in political debates.
1. How many American men were drafted to fight in the Great War before its end?
2 million
1. In order to conserve fuel for the war effort, the Wilson administration established
the eight-hour workday.
meatless Tuesdays.
school gardens.
daylight savings time.
1. In which of the following ways did home-front mobilization transform women’s lives during World War I?
Women entered the paid workforce in unprecedented numbers.
Working women began to earn salaries equal to those of men.
Women were freed of the responsibility for housework and childcare.
Women were encouraged to join the armed forces alongside men.
1. President McKinley’s imperialist agenda was signaled by his declaration of war on Spain and
support for the Teller Amendment.
support of Philippine independence.
rejection of Mahan’s theories.
annexation of the Hawaiian islands.
1. President Wilson’s inability to remain neutral in the conflict between the Allies and the Central Powers was the result of
America’s fear of Britain’s superior military strength.
anti-German sentiment among ordinary Americans.
America’s economic dependence on the Allies.
pressure from the American banking sector.
1. President William McKinley came to favor U.S. intervention in the Spanish-Cuban war when he
was convinced Spain would lose to Cuba.
was called “weak” by the Spanish ambassador.
read that the Spanish had blown up the Maine.
learned of Spanish brutality toward Cubans.
1. The American conviction that native Cubans and Filipinos were not ready for self-governance after their liberation from Spain reflected the belief that
their lands would otherwise be vulnerable to conquest by other European nations.
the involvement of the United States would guarantee the establishment of democracy.
nonwhite peoples were inferior and needed to be educated and protected by whites.
an independent Cuba and Philippines were a threat to American security.
1. The Naval Act of 1890 can be interpreted as a fulfillment of the vision of
Josiah Strong.
John Fiske.
Rudyard Kipling.
Alfred Thayer Mahan.
1. The Roosevelt Corollary guided President Taft’s policies in
1. The United States was motivated to begin pursuing an imperialist agenda at the end of the nineteenth century because the country
needed more land for its growing population.
needed a new source of raw materials to supply its industries.
was producing more manufactured goods than its population could use.
wanted to undermine revolutionary movements in countries like Cuba.
1. The belief embraced by American men at the turn of the twentieth century that “civilizing” nonwhite peoples was an expression of manly honor was inspired by
John D. Rockefeller.
John Sharp Williams.
1. The decline in the amount of raw garbage in Chicago during World War I was evidence of the
lack of consumer goods available for purchase on the home front.
reallocation of food stuffs from domestic markets to the military.
decline in population due to the number of men who had been drafted.
success of Herbert Hoover’s campaign for voluntary conservation.
1. The government’s concern that the American public was not solidly in support of the war is evidenced by the
establishment of the American Protective League.
passage of the Espionage and Sedition acts.
introduction of the terms liberty cabbage and liberty sandwiches.
passage of the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
1. The ideal of “Cuba Libre” encompassed independence from Spain and
the emancipation of black slaves.
greater racial and economic equality.
free trade with the United States.
the end of colonialism in the Caribbean.
1. U.S. intervention in Nicaragua was motivated by a desire to
protect U.S. business interests there.
support its democratically elected government.
establish a military base in Central America.
replace Dollar Diplomacy with military action.
1. Which country controlled Panama during U.S. negotiations to construct the Panama Canal?
1. Which of the following inspired criticism of U.S. military involvement in the Philippines?
News of battlefield atrocities perpetrated by American soldiers
The fact that Filipino rebels had turned against American forces
Concern that the American military would be defeated by the Filipinos
Support for rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo’s call for “Independence or death!”
1. Who led the opposition to U.S. involvement in the League of Nations?
William Jennings Bryan
Charles Evans Hughes
1. Who prevented the annexation of Hawaii by the United States in 1893?
Grover Cleveland
The U.S. marines
American Christian missionaries
1. Why was the United States able to defeat Spain so quickly?
U.S. troops were better trained and equipped.
U.S. soldiers were less vulnerable to disease.
The Spanish had been worn down by war with the Cubans.
Fewer Americans died in combat.
1. Wilson’s reelection in 1916 can be attributed to
the American public’s ambivalence about entering the war.
the American public’s outrage over the Lusitania affair.
his unsuccessful efforts to negotiate an armistice.
his signing of the National Defense Act.
Take Test: Chap 21 An Anxious Influence
1. African American culture in the 1920s, from poetry to the blues, was notable for
its expression of middle-class black values.
pandering to white audiences.
authentically reflecting the black experience.
reinforcing racist stereotypes.
1. Black newspapers like the Chicago Defender described conditions in the North for African Americans as
no better but no worse than life in the South.
filled with violence and danger.
offering opportunities not available in the South.
culturally foreign due to large number of foreign immigrants.
1. Despite their differences, Langston Hughes and Marcus Garvey agreed that
to be truly free, black Americans needed to return to Africa.
African American success did not depend on white approval.
economic self-sufficiency was essential to developing racial pride.
artistic expression was crucial to the development of a positive African American identity.
1. During the 1920s, women who wore short skirts and makeup and enjoyed smoking, drinking, and dancing were called
New Negroes.
matinee idols.
1. How did the marketing of Listerine during the 1920s reflect the role of advertising in a consumer-oriented economy?
It compared product’s quality to other similar items.
It convinced consumers they had a need they weren’t previously aware of.
It identified the wealthy as the product’s target audience.
It suggested that use of the product would improve the consumer’s economic prospects.
1. In the 1920s, Madison Avenue was home to the fledgling
automobile industry.
advertising industry.
movie industry.
stock market.
1. Movie stars such as Douglas Fairbanks Jr. and Mary Pickford influenced Americans’ taste in
1. Republican victory in the 1924 presidential election can be attributed to the split within the Democratic party over
social welfare policy.
Darwin’s theory of evolution.
farm relief.
1. The “American Plan,” proposed by Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover, sought to undermine labor unions by encouraging business leaders to
fire union members.
provide workers with health insurance.
ban the distribution of leaflets.
export jobs to other countries.
1. The Harlem Renaissance would not have occurred were it not for the
Great Migration.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Universal Negro Improvement Association.
Chicago Defender.
1. The Sacco and Vanzetti case, like the cases of Charles Schenck and Jacob Abrams, demonstrated a predisposition among native-born Americans to see immigrants as
a threat to the safety and security of the American people.
proponents of free speech and civil liberties.
responsible for spreading the influenza epidemic.
to blame for America’s moral decline.
1. The corruption scandal that rocked President Warren G. Harding’s administration was known as
the Red Scare.
Black Tuesday.
Teapot Dome.
American Mercury.
1. The fact that a wide array of labor-saving devices became available to American consumers during the 1920s was a response to
increased access to electricity in urban areas.
the availability of large amounts of disposable income.
advertising’s ability to create demand for unnecessary items.
the effectiveness of the assembly line.
1. The growth of the Ku Klux Klan outside the South during the 1920s can be attributed to the
spread of white supremacist ideology.
passage of the National Origins Act.
organization’s adoption of nativist and traditionalist views.
popularity of Garveyism among African Americans.
1. The incident that sparked the Chicago race riots of 1919 demonstrated that
racial segregation was practiced in the North as well as the South.
World War I veterans were not being reintegrated into American society.
the Great Migration had little impact on life in northern cities.
many African Americans were radicals and anti-capitalists.
1. The passage of the National Origins Act in 1924 inspired nativist reformers to
declare victory and withdraw from politics.
organize English language and citizenship classes for immigrants.
encourage Mexican Americans to return to their native land.
oppose the execution of the Italian anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti.
1. The research findings of Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict on race and culture supported the beliefs of
Henry Ford.
W. J. Simmons.
W. E. B. Du Bois.
E. P. Cubberly.
1. The writers and artists who saw the spread of mass culture and growth of consumerism as assaults on individualism, creativity, and intellectual exploration were known as the
Lost Generation.
Talented Tenth.
star system.
1. U.S. Senator and future Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black was a member of the
American Civil Liberties Union.
Industrial Workers of the World.
Ku Klux Klan.
1. What made it possible for income inequality to grow during the 1920s, a period of apparent prosperity?
Government corruption scandals like Teapot Dome benefited the wealthy and hurt the poor.
Increased mechanization of factory work led to massive unemployment among unskilled laborers.
Corporate and governmental efforts to destroy labor unions resulted in lower wages among the working class.
Corporate profits grew much faster than wages did, so more wealth was accumulated by the already rich.
1. What was the movement of thousands of African Americans from the South to the North and West in search of better jobs and better treatment during World War I called?
The Mass Exodus
The Great Migration
Black Tuesday
1. Which of the following challenged the homogeneity of mass consumer culture?
Motion pictures
1. Which of the following consumer goods had a transformative impact on day-to-day life in the United States during the 1920s?
1. Who launched the government crusade to rid the country of political radicals like Emma Goldman, an anarchist and feminist, during the Red Scare of 1919?
Oliver Wendell Holmes
A. Mitchell Palmer
Calvin Coolidge
Woodrow Wilson
1. Who promoted the ?Back to Africa? movement, which sought to move black Americans to their ancestral homelands?
D. C. Stephenson and the Ku Klux Klan
A. Philip Randolph and the African American labor movement
Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association
W.E.B. Du Bois and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

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