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Hazard Mitigation Paper

  1. Based on the instructions found in Week 1 and using the outline approved in Week 3, submit your final 7+ page “Hazard Mitigation Paper”

Hazard Mitigation Response Paper for W7 Instructions

Download “Hazard Mitigation Template”  ********SEE ATTACHED******

This assignment is intended to grasp your insight into the numerous potential and man-made disasters for which emergency planners must be prepared to deal. Emergency management is a quickly evolving profession with many opportunities for individuals who wish to pursue it as a career. This exercise will offer insights into the scope and responsibilities of individuals in the profession. 

You will be provided a “Hazard Mitigation Template” (see above), from the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency. You will be asked to complete the five exercises in the worksheet for your community, or a community of your choice, as the focus for the mitigation study. This exercise requires a deal of research and analysis on their part. After doing the research required to complete each of the five sections of the worksheet, you must also final report which thoroughly examines the risks, preparedness, and response capabilities of the community. 

At the end of Week 3, you will develop an outline and email that course of action for the exercise to your instructor for approval, and comments.  

For the final report you should also include suggestions on how to mitigate the risks and improve response capabilities. You may also include relevant charts, graphs, and other illustrations to support, supplement and/or clarify. 

Thorough data collection for this exercise requires time. You should start data collection immediately in order to have enough time to collect, synthesize and report on the data. 

Some possible resources for data include: 

  • Emergency management web sites of the community the students have selected. 
  • Police and fire websites. 
  • Their local emergency management department. Often communities of size have an emergency management department. In smaller communities it is often the fire chief who is the designated emergency manager. 
  • The community’s Streets Department or Traffic Engineering Department. 
  • Local utility companies. 
  • Other internet sources. 

Outside readings for this project include: 

  • Your text 
  • The Hazard Mitigation Planning Template itself is a great source of information. 
  • The Hazard Mitigation Planning Tools and Techniques Guide, Download here.
  • The community’s planning department. 
  • The community’s budget department. 

You must remember when doing the exercise to also consider surrounding communities because their disasters can also affect your community and become your responsibility. Consider industrial manufacturing using toxic substances, military bases, large scale utility sites, etc. that may be close by. This exercise is a chance for you to develop a mitigation plan for the community you have chosen. 

View this exercise as if you are the newly appointed emergency manager of the community. Prepare a written report to the governmental entity to which you are accountable, i.e. city council, county board of supervisors, or other legislative bodies. Prepare a thorough report to provide to them as part of your first meeting with this group. The report should be thorough, professional, and audience appropriate. The report can also include charts, graphs, and other illustrations for clarification. 

The final document must comply with the writing guidelines established for this course. It will be a minimum of seven (7) pages, not including the cover and reference pages. A thorough exercise, particularly one including charts and graphs, will exceed this minimum by several pages. The students must include in-text citations indicating where they obtained data and information. Also they must remember to support their findings and recommendations with references from relevant sources. 




1. Introduction 



Alabama has experienced 54 state-proclaimed emergency disasters in the last 4 decades. The county is vulnerable to catastrophic disasters for most residents (Fema.gov, 2015)



Mitigation is a set of actions taken to reduce the long-term risks facing human life and their property from natural hazards



The plan was developed through interactions with Emergency management Agency members where a committee was tasked with attending meetings, collect information and represent the interest of the community



The information for the plan was obtained from Empirical data and records from past occurrences



The mitigation plan seeks to identify and evaluate all natural hazards that may affect the community


2. Community and Hazard Exposure Profile (part 2 of the template) 



Alabama is the most populous state with 37 million people



Alabama County has an extensive coverage of road network covering 1351 miles with major highways as


  1. Alabama Highway 117

  2. Alabama Highway 45

  3. Alabama Highway 13



Alabama region has two airports that serve the entire municipal functions. The Alabama International Airport located within the town of Alabama and Florala Municipal Airport on the South of Alabama.



Manufacturing sector comprise of Shaw Industries producing Carpet, Alabama Gas District producing gas and EarthLink offering internet services.



No military Base



Regional Hospital offers a vast range of medical services and employs 300 workers. Memorial Hospital also offers public medical services and employees 270 people.



Town of River Falls



Alabama Covington County School employees 500 people


3. List of possible community hazards (part 1 of the template). For each hazard discuss: 



  1. Drought: Drought occurs when there is a below average precipitation affecting water table and particularly drinking water supply(Godschalk, 2003). The entire region of Alabama is susceptible to drought to its location

  2. Earthquakes: Earthquakes results from sudden movement of the earth, due to release of energy from earth’s crust (Kanamori, 2014).

  3. Flooding: Is short-term or long-term occurrence that results from heavy precipitation and is common in urban areas.



  1. Extensive Drought conditions may negatively affect agricultural production and wildfires

  2. Earthquakes can lead to great property damage by destroying utility lines, buildings, and communication among others



  1. Much of the community’s drinking water is drawn from the ground and so the drought would limit its supply.

  2. Riverine-flooding not only result to property damage, but also multiple casualties


4. Hazard Vulnerability analysis and frequency chart (part 3 of the template) 



Minor/ low: No real damage


Serious/moderate: Considerable damage with some roofing materials and other structures blown down


Extensive/high: more serious damage to structures


Catastrophic/very high: Complete damage to residences and industrial buildings


Rainfall and Hurricane Risk Matrix


1’ C


























5. Your community’s capability assessment (part 4 of the worksheet) 


  • Emergency Medical Services provided by Fire Departments within the region

  • Fire protection is provided on a volunteer basis

  • American Red Cross, United Way and the Salvation Army provides assistance when needed

  • The 9111 system is operational

  • A modern GIS technology is installed and available throughout the county

  • Available Federal and State on critical emergency services


(Aldoi.gov, 2015)


6. Recommended Mitigation Measures


  1. Evaluate vulnerability of critical facilities and infrastructure within the region

  2. Repair water system

  3. Upgrade critical facilities throughout the region

  4. Relocate flood-prone structures and repetitive damage properties

  5. Install Additional Warning siren


The Mitigation measures should be undertaken by Alabama County government by the end of next financial year.


7. Conclusion


Response actions are based on prioritization where each project has predefined timeframe


Hazard mitigation processes will be advertised to the public




















Aldoi.gov,. (2015). SAHWeb – Information. Retrieved 26 October 2015, from http://www.aldoi.gov/SAH/Home.aspx


Fema.gov,. (2015). Disaster Declarations for Alabama | FEMA.gov. Retrieved 26 October 2015, from https://www.fema.gov/disasters/grid/state-tribal-government/28


Godschalk, D. (2003). Urban Hazard Mitigation: Creating Resilient Cities. Natural Hazards Review,4(3), 136-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(asce)1527-6988(2003)4:3(136)


Kanamori, H. (2014). The Diversity of Large Earthquakes and Its Implications for Hazard Mitigation.Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci.42(1), 7-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-earth-060313-055034





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